The Antheraea polyphemus moth, the Actias luna moth, the Columbia silk moth (Hyalophora Columbia), and the Hyalophora cecropia moth, among others, are among the species that make up the giant silk moths. Giant silk moths are included in the biggest moths in the world. The color variations range from dull, waxy green with rows of orange, yellow, or blue adorning the wings in the Columbia silk moth to a brighter colored cecropia moth. The polyphemus moth has shades of brown, orange, and yellow forming “eye spots,” while the luna moth has bright green with pink or brown spots and tails on the hind wings.
Each of these produces silk, which is harvested and used in South American and Asian cultures to make silk. The hues range from light brown, silvery brown, and brown, respectively, to white silk and light brown. The native habitat of these silk-producing moths, which can reach a wingspan of 6 inches, is deciduous rain forests and wooded areas. When it is time for mating, the female moth will only release pheromones for two to three hours, luring males from far away.
More About The Giant Silk Moth Family
The Giant Silk Moth family, Saturniidae, includes the Cecropia, Promethea, Polyphemus, and Luna moths. Some of these moths are true giants, with wingspan measurements ranging from 4″ to 6″. The Buck moth, a former BOTW celebrity, is one of the family’s smaller members. Some Asian and South American Saturniids are semi-domesticated, and the silk spun by their larvae is harvested. Saturniids are distantly related to the Oriental moth that is used to produce silk. Although the BugLady has read that cocoons have been opened by people in need of fishing line leaders, North American silk moths aren’t used to make silk. The gypsy moth, a highly invasive member of the tussock moth family, was first introduced to test its viability as a silk producer.
Physical Characteristics of Giant Silk Moth Family
The largest moth species in North America are found among the Saturniids: the luna moth, cecropia moth, polyphemus moth, imperial moth, io moth, Promethea moth, and royal walnut moth. The longest wingspan of all, measuring an astounding 5-7 inches, belongs to the cecropia moth, a giant among giants. In comparison to their enormous cousins, some Saturniids may appear dwarf-like, but even the tiniest of the wild silkworm moths measures a respectable 2.5 cm in width. Giant silkworm moths frequently have vivid colors, which could lead inexperienced observers to mistake them for butterflies. Saturniids have stout, hairy bodies and, like most moths, hold their wings flat against them when at rest. They have feathery antennae as well, which are quite noticeable in males.
Caterpillars of the genus Saturniid are large and frequently have spines or protuberances on them. Despite giving the caterpillar a scary appearance, these tubercles are typically quite harmless. But watch out for the moth caterpillar. Its branched spines contain a potent amount of venom and will cause a severe sting.
Diet of Giant Silk Moth Family
Adult silkworms have only rudimentary mouthparts and do not feed at all. However, their larvae are a different matter. You can imagine how much they eat because the largest caterpillars in this group can grow to be more than 5 inches long in their final instar. Several can significantly defoliate common trees and shrubs, such as hickories, walnuts, sweetgum, and sumac.
Special Adaptations And Behaviors of Giant Silk Moth Family
By releasing a sex pheromone from a special gland at the end of their abdomens, female Saturniid moths entice males to mate. The male moths are renowned for their tenacity and laser-like concentration when searching for the receptive female. Because of their sensilla-filled feathery antennae, they have a keen sense of smell. A male giant silkworm moth will not be deterred by bad weather or let physical obstacles stand in his way once he smells a female’s scent. The longest distance traveled by a male Promethea moth in pursuit of a female’s pheromones. To find his mate, he flew an incredible 23 miles.
Life Cycle of Giant Silk Moth Family
All royal and giant silkworm moths go through a full metamorphosis, going through the egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. In the Saturniids, an adult female may produce several hundred eggs in the course of her brief life, but only one percent of those eggs may develop into mature offspring. This family overwinters during the pupal stage, frequently in silken cocoons attached to twigs or tucked inside of a leafy protective cocoon.
A single female moth may lay up to 200 eggs on a selected host plant, depending on the moth. Others are conceived singly or in tiny clusters. They are translucent or whitish, round, slightly flattened, smooth, and round.
Caterpillars of the genus Saturniid are large (50 to 100 mm in the final instar), cylindrical, and stout. On the other hand, there are seven largest caterpillars in the world. Most of them have spiny or hairy tubercles as well. Some are more colorful, but many have cryptic coloration that uses countershading or disruptive coloration to lessen detection. Some people have itchy hairs. When threatened, some species have been observed to make clicking noises with their larval mandibles.
In the leaves of their preferred host plant, in leaf litter on the ground, or cracks in rocks and logs, the majority of larvae spin a silken cocoon. Although among the Lepidoptera, most larger saturniids are only distantly related to the silkworm, their cocoons can be collected and used to produce silk fabric. Some species, usually Ceratocampinae, such as the regal moth and the imperial moth, have larvae that burrow underground and pupate in a tiny chamber. The Ceratocampinae and Hemileucinae frequently exhibit this.
Those silk moths that pupate underground use less silk than the majority of other species do. Once inside the cocoon, the caterpillar sheds its larval skin and develops into a pupa. After about 14 days, the pupa either emerges or enters a state of diapause. Respiratory systems will remain intact, the digestive system will disintegrate, and reproductive organs will develop during metamorphosis.
A full set of mature ova are present when adult females first appear, and they use pheromones to “call” males. The sensitive receptors on the tips of the males’ feather-like antennae help them detect these chemical signals up to a mile away. Females typically won’t fly until after they’ve mated, so the males must travel several miles in one night to find one and mate with her. Saturniid adults rely on stored lipids acquired during the larval stage to survive because their digestive tracts and mouthparts are vestigial. As a result, adult behavior is almost entirely focused on reproduction, but as soon as they emerge from the pupa, they only live for about a week.